Inside the Hyundai/Kia V2L Connector

The new Hyundai Ioniq 5 and Kia EV6, both based on the shared E-GMP platform, support a cool “new” feature called vehicle-to-load. I use quotes because it is and it isn’t – plenty of cars have had AC outlets in them for plenty of years, and one 1.8kW inverter isn’t even that expensive on Amazon to just wire in (not that you could, on one of these cars, as I believe the DCDC converter that supplies 12V couldn’t handle 150A extra load).

On the other hand, the car already includes a bunch of power electronics to charge the DC battery from AC, and adapting those to run in reverse as an AC supply IS both relatively new and pretty cool.

Both cars sport an interior AC outlet, and both also support AC-out through their charging port, J1772 in the USA and Type 2 most of elsewhere in the world. As of now, the V2L connector is the one way to make use of the second option, and power stuff outside your car without running an extension cord through the window.

I mention that because, in lots of cases, it seems like a perfectly practical option. The only real points against are that you couldn’t well do that in the rain, and I can contrive at least one or two scenarios when I’d like to use AC powered devices even if it’s raining – a flea market stall, or camping with a tent, for instance. The main question is whether this device, which costs something like $500 in the USA, is worth it for that one use case. The second question is whether it holds any secrets as to whether we can get MORE power out of the car than just one outlet (your whole house, perhaps?)

So naturally I took it apart.

V2L adapter guts on the table, two halves of the shell and the harness of wires and connectors separately.

The first thing that jumps to mind looking at the inside is: I guess I can see why this device, produced at these relatively low volumes (a couple tens of thousand?) is super expensive. But on the other hand, it feels like it doesn’t NEED to be, and the design reads a lot like an automotive engineer got a sheet of requirements that felt too short to them, so they made some extra ones up.

For instance, look at that white shell.

close up of white top shell inside

That red o-ring on the right is waterproofing. It exists only to prevent water coming into the device through the power indicator LED window. But it’s a total farce for two reasons: 1. the opaque window is basically bonded fully to the shell. I’d be surprised if it isn’t totally water-tight on its own, and it could be made to be with ultrasonic welding, which is probably how it’s installed in the first place. And 2. assuming water DID leak in through the window, the o-ring would hold it in pooled contact with the LED circuit board, with no drainage path at all. That board has large, low-gauge AC wires exposed right on it. They designed in (expensive!) waterproofing that would make the failure mode MUCH worse than if the water simply dripped off that area into the rest of the device.

In stark contrast to the blue rectangle I’ve highlighted – a completely un-sealed, very-open leak path on the topmost surface, around the locking lever switch. This also leaks directly into exposed electronics (albeit at lower voltage on the neutral and proximity pilot lines).

It’s as if someone was like “this device is literally only useful in the rain, all exposed wires need to be hermetically sealed” but then someone else came along and was like “it’s impossible to hermetically seal the contacts in the plug” and then someone else said “it’s really hard to seal the lever we have to put in the USA version” so then they just gave up trying, but some expensive and questionable parts were already done.

Consider this expensive-looking definitely-automotive-grade hermetically sealed connector they’ve chosen to attach the AC lines to the region-specific outlet interface, which isn’t hermetically sealed and also can’t be.

Why does it even have a connector in the fist place? It’s true that there are a handful of regions this device must support with different outlets, but also the entire harness is different between the Type 2 and J1772 versions, so what’s one more thing with short wires you have to manually solder? It’s either manual labor on the connector, or on the other-connector, and it’s a totally overkill connector to boot.

Speaking of overkill, this is the LED indicator:

photo of the LED indicator PCB.

It’s a super straightforward design – there’s JUST a rectifier and capacitive dropper powering 3 LEDs directly off the mains voltage. If the output voltage is present, the LEDs light. Couldn’t be simpler. Although this PCB is desperately over-engineered for the task, with a test point for every net on it, and AC input coming in on like 14 gauge wires. I have no idea why these are so chonky – just to really boil any water that leaks into this cavity, I guess?

One last interesting bit of (I think) over-engineering is the thermal cutoff on the outlet itself.

The white ceramic piece is a bimetallic temperature switch that opens if it gets too hot, and in the assembly, it’s physically touching the brass contacts for the live and neutral (current carrying) contacts in the plug. The idea is, if the connection is bad and high-resistance and heats up to the point that the plastic might catch fire, this switch turns off the V2L output. Electrically, it’s the same as clicking the power switch off.

It feels a little silly to me because faulty outlets like that are caused typically by a combination of mechanical under-design and extreme old age. I think the outlet would be so annoying you’d replace the device long before it would catch fire. But on the other hand, maybe the real fault they’re designing against here is contact corrosion, on a device that’s basically expected to be used in the rain. Seems like a sensible safety interlock in that case.

In terms of overall function, I thought about drawing up a schematic, but for the most part it’s dead simple: the LED is powered directly by mains voltage present on the output when it’s enabled. The power switch and the thermal switch short control pilot and proximity together if they’re both “on” (i.e. cold). The latch handle switch connects proximity pilot to neutral via 75 ohms if the device is latched in place, or 500 ohms if it’s unlatched. And of course, control pilot gets the same treatment if the power switch is “on” since they’re shorted together in that case.

Region-specific output?

The most disappointing conclusion I have, in tandem with this British teardown and this test of a korean (J1772) connector putting out 120V on a USA car, is that nothing in this connector dictates what voltage the device outputs. It must be configured in the car itself. That seems to imply that a USA car won’t output 240V at higher current (like, say, 11kW) simply by plugging the right connector into it. There IS certainly possibility that more advanced communication supports higher-level output even with the hardware already on board. But this definitely precludes the possibility of simply making a passive adapter to let you, say, V2H during a power outage with the proper interlock on your panel and a generator plug (you CAN do this, but only for one phase, and only for 15A).

Here are some more pictures I didn’t include above:

front-view of the outlet contacts.
Top view of the J1772 latch microswitch
bottom view of the latch microswitch PCB
Inside the power button. Nothing fancy, just a button that latches open or closed.
Slightly different harness overview angle


  1. Al Klappenberger
    April 19, 2022

    I would love to see the schematic diagram!

  2. DomT
    April 30, 2022

    I would love to see the schematic too, please.
    I have a plug on order from Ali Express and wish to wire it up.

  3. Bob Nagy
    August 16, 2022

    I bought the Korean version which just arrived. Although it outputs 120V 60hz AC,
    It does so with 60V on both the hot and neutral pins. I’m afraid of plugging anything in to it! What are your observations?

  4. August 16, 2022

    @bob 60V to what, though? The outputs are totally floating. There isn’t a neutral on a Korean plug, so there’s also no defined ground on that adapter.

    Long story short, the 60V that you measure from one phase to (anything else) is phantom voltage coupling capacitively. If you measure 60V, then touch your two multimeter leads with your fingers, you won’t get hurt (not that I suggest you should try).

  5. Anne DeVries
    September 17, 2022

    I was not sure what this was when I found it in my 2022 EV6. The sales guy had said the car did not come with a charging cord. After I figured out it was a V2L, I then had the question if this could be used to charge the car from a regular 110 plug. I have fixed plugs on cords and thought I could put a male plug end on both sides of a cord and then plug one into the V2L and the other into a 120 V outlet. I would guess it could fry some of that computer stuff, as it would not like the electricity going the wrong way. What do you think would happen?

  6. September 17, 2022

    At best, it won’t work. At worst, there’s a decent chance it’ll destroy your ICCU module, and I wouldn’t expect a replacement to come cheap or quick.

    I’d hope the car has protection built-in to avoid damage in that case, but I’m an electrical engineer and I can tell you designing it would be a challenge.

    The bottom line is that cords with a male plug on both ends are always VERY bad, and if you don’t know why or don’t believe the statement, you have the least business using one, so don’t make one 🙂

  7. November 2, 2022

    Anne, the EV6 does come with a charging cord (EVSE) in the trunk. It’s the bag with velcro. It can also be in the frunk if you have 2WD in europe. Don’t use the V2L. It’s not design for that.

    I found schematic on the kiaevforums dot com “V2L EV6/Ioniq Adaptor” and will definitively try to make one.

  8. November 4, 2022

    so I just try this. I guest from reading your comments I short CP and PP together. That does not work on my long range EV6. It’s not a GT line. From my understanding this work with all EV6. I ask my neighbour who got GT line if I can test on his car and will check if he got the adaptor. Some country it comes with the high end model.

    also I have 150 ohm vs 75ohm.

    PE and PP
    Gun Switch Release 150 Ohm
    Gun Switch Pressed 482 Ohm

    will add a a 150 ohm resistor in // with the 150 to bring it down to 75 ohm and try again. This mean I can easily add this between PP and PE without taking my gun apart (for now)

  9. November 4, 2022

    @jerome I don’t follow exactly what you did – you just stuck a wire between the control pins on the bare port? I’d expect that wouldn’t work without also having the proper 75ohm from proximity to neutral to indicate a latched plug.
    I think if you jam a 75ohm to neutral in there, then connect the two control signals after that, it should light up your hot line.

  10. November 4, 2022

    got it working!!
    Will make blog post in next few week and share your website!

  11. Cleveland Burnaby Powell
    November 5, 2022

    My Electrical knowledge is a bit rusty these days to say the least but being as the car is set on 4 nice ground insulating tyres how does the ground protection work?

  12. December 11, 2022

    I was able to make a working V2L adapter by modifying a standard J1776 cable with a 62 ohm resistor and some standard electrical outlet parts from Lowes. To spite all the green ground wires being connected correctly a diagnostic plug shows “open ground”. If anybody can do this test on a “real” Hyunday V2L adapter I would like to hear the results.

  13. December 11, 2022

    @Al – in mains electrical systems, the neutral line is bonded to ground at the main service, where power first enters the building. It can’t safely be bonded inside the car when it’s plugged in as a consumer, so it has to be bonded inside the V2L adapter. Literally just wire nut ground and neutral together inside your adapter, and all will be right.

  14. Al Klappenberger
    December 11, 2022

    THANK YOU! My background is electronics, not power electric standards, I will strap the neutral (white wire) to the ground (green wire) and the metal box. Correct?

  15. Al Klappenberger
    December 12, 2022

    Look again.. Tester shows “Correct”. Thanks again!
    Al K.

  16. January 8, 2023

    Yep! The inverter is the ICCU (it’s the active rectifier/boost converter for charging, run in reverse). The Lectron adapter came out well after this article but I’m quite certain it’ll be electrically identical. I built my own out of a J1772 plug and an extension cord which I like since it’s got a bit of reach for whatever old plug you want to attach, but I wouldn’t hesitate to get the Lectron.

  17. Kevin Byrne
    January 9, 2023

    Great topic here folks. I designed an autotransformer enclosure and 2-pole circuit breaker assembly to safely energize and disconnect a ~5 kVA autotransformer to a 30A generator inlet box. This contains a 3-wire 120V 30A twistlock plug that connects an extension cord to the V2L adapter on my EV6 charging port.
    When connected, the autoxfmr excites without any problems, This delivers 120/240v single-phase to the generator input terminals of my Enphase microgrid system controller. This essentially serves as an automatic generator transfer switch that connects to a backup load center. The autotransformer allows the V2L to heat up both sides of my backup panel busbars with split phase 240v.
    It works, although it’s the user’s job to manage loads in the home to avoid overloading the 1.8 kVA output of the EV6 (120v x 15A = 1800w). It is limited, but if you’re running mostly LED lights and avoiding large motor loads, there’s no reason one couldn’t weather an outage without too much inconvenience. The hot tub breaker would need to be shut off, and you can’t run the microwave and the FAU at the same time, but that’s no big deal. Just be smart and conservative with your energy usage, 1800 watts is nearly equal to the Honda 2.2 kW inverter generator, but it’s alot quieter and less stinky!

  18. Kevin Byrne
    January 9, 2023

    Although I assembled a NEMA 3R autotransformer enclosure and breaker box that is mounted to an exterior wall on my home, there is a NEMA 1 unit from Outback Power Systems that would work fine for this application. I’ve done off-grid solar for years, so use of Outback stuff is pretty standard and time-proven.

    It would be a lot easier to install an Outback autotransformer than to struggle against hope and the NEC for our EVs to export 120/240v 60 hz split phase @ 30A to our homes. It would be sweet if this were a reality, and maybe someday it will be. But in the meantime there’s this:

  19. January 9, 2023

    It’s cool to know that works, thanks for reporting! I wonder if it isn’t over complicated though? The point of it is to supply both phases of your panel simultaneously, and it’s on you to make sure any of the 240v loads (which are presumably very likely to overload the car instantly) are switched off?

    Assuming you have an interlock so the input can’t be on simultaneously with the street supply, couldn’t you wire the single hot phase to both sides of the panel, presumably with two breakers so they aren’t shorted together? Then all your 120V loads would work regardless of physical phase, and any 240V appliances would see 0V phase to phase. The only disadvantage I could see is the odd appliance with both 240V phase-phase and 120V phase-neutral loads in it. So like, maybe your oven would turn on but then fail to heat at all as the controls would be live but the elements would have 0V.

  20. fbyte
    March 14, 2023

    I didn’t expect someone reviewed this 1 year ago. You’re really ahead of time. I think more cars and hybrid ones will have v2l feature. So I’m thinking about using this with an automatic transfer switch in main electric panel. But the problem is it uses same pins to receive power and give power. I couldn’t figure out how to wire safely to isolate two source in main panel because 2nd source is also connected to 1st source. Can you share the knowledge if you know how?

    Maybe we’ll need new connector design with 2 output pins from inverter and 2 another signal pins to remotely start the engine in hybrid cars.

  21. March 15, 2023

    @Fbyte A couple things: you MUST change plugs to distinguish between charging or V2L output. You could design a box to handle switching back and forth with a single plug, but it’s far from trivial. If you’re into electronics, you could start with an OpenEVSE and design some kind of battery-backed control logic that would switch from charger duty to load duty. You’d also have to switch the panel’s load path which seems like too much extra work.
    Further, no matter how much work you put in, the V2L will only source 120V@15A (in north america). If you wire your critical loads/generator inlet panel appropriately, you could have locked out breakers that switch that panel to the inlet, and ONLY populate breakers on the one phase you wire up to the inlet plug.
    If you want to get really serious about it, there’s a point at which you just opt for something like a wallbox quasar 2, which is much more expensive because it includes high-power inverters onboard, but will output split-phase 240 to run your whole house if you so choose. Of course, you don’t need to have a car with V2L functionality to use that, it just has to support the right communication.

    At the end of the day, all of this tech is still annoyingly in its infancy. It’s easy to get excited about the possibilities, but many aren’t much a reality yet. About the coolest thing you can do RIGHT now is to install a generator inlet and transfer switch so you can power your fridge in a blackout without running an extension cord. But for the level of effort involved, the extension cord is a pretty solid plan A.

  22. James
    March 20, 2023

    Has anyone tested in the Americas if 62ohms is the right value and is diy less expensive than the lectron price of ~$120?

  23. March 20, 2023

    @james I DIYed my own using 75ohms per what I found above, and that works. I’m guessing it’s quite tolerant of different values, since the value doesn’t seem to indicate anything like region/voltage.
    As for DIY cost, I did mine for about $90 with an off the shelf J1772 handle, latching push button, and heavy extension cord. I probably wouldn’t do it again with the Lectron on sale – off-the-shelf is much tidier and certainly more compact to fit in the frunk.

  24. Lew page
    August 15, 2023

    Pretty sure the o-rings are for condensation resistance not waterproofing.

  25. August 21, 2023

    Excellent observation Lew, I bet you’re right! Odd they’d go that route over adding conformal coat.

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